The reason ballerinas are able to dance that way is because they are wearing special shoes.
As you can see, they are flat in front.
That makes it possible to stand on their toes in the first place.
How do you stand on your toes in ballet?
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Ballet Lessons : How Do Ballerinas Stand on Their Toes? – YouTube
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Does Pointe Ballet ruin your feet?
Ballet dancers often have problems with their feet because female dancers wear pointe shoes. Dancing on pointe can damage the feet of any dancer, but is especially harmful for professional dancers. As stated in The Guardian, the problems that dancers face are wide-ranging from black nails to corns to blisters.
Why do ballerinas dance on their toes?
Why do ballerinas dance on pointe? A ballerina on the tips of her toes is the quintessential symbol of ballet. After about 100 years a few adventurous women shortened their skirts and took the heels off of their shoes; the audience could see their feet and the dancers could make those feet do interesting steps!
Do pointe shoes hurt?
While pointe work is not exactly like wearing slippers, it should not be painful for the beginner. There are a few reasons why dancers may get pain en pointe, and each can be easily corrected. If you are strong, have well fitting shoes, and are sensible with how long you are in the shoes, pain should not be a problem.