Question: What Does A Horizontal Line In A Pedigree Represent?

In a pedigree, a circle represents a female, and a square represents a male.

The horizontal line that connects a circle and a square represents a marriage.

The vertical line(s) and brackets below that line show the child(ren) of that couple.

What does a vertical line represent on a pedigree?

Where the square symbol represents male and the circle symbol represents female. In order to show mating between the male and the female there is a line that connects the square to the circle. Then to show the kids of the parents, a vertical line is drawn connecting the parents to the children.

What does the horizontal line between the male and female represent?

An unfilled circle is used to represent a normal female, an unfilled square to represent a normal male and a diamond to represent a normal individual of unknown gender. Mating between males and females is shown by a horizontal line between their respective symbols.

What do the symbols mean in a pedigree?

Pedigrees use a standardized set of symbols, squares represent males and circles represent females. Pedigree construction is a family history, and details about an earlier generation may be uncertain as memories fade. Someone with the phenotype in question is represented by a filled-in (darker) symbol.

What does a line in between two individuals represent?

Square shapes represent males; circles represent females. Filled-in shapes are individuals that have whatever trait is being shown in the pedigree. Two individuals connected together with a horizontal line between them are the parents of the individuals that are connected by vertical lines below them.

What do double lines mean in a pedigree?

Inbreeding in pedigrees. Consanguinious matings are those between related individuals (those that share a common ancestor), and are indicated by double lines between pedigree symbols. The relatedness (r) of two individuals is the fraction of alleles they share at all loci.

How do you interpret a pedigree?

Reading a pedigree

  • Determine whether the trait is dominant or recessive. If the trait is dominant, one of the parents must have the trait.
  • Determine if the chart shows an autosomal or sex-linked (usually X-linked) trait. For example, in X-linked recessive traits, males are much more commonly affected than females.

What is ego in a kinship chart?

In kinship diagrams, one individual is usually labeled as ego . This is the person to whom all kinship relationships are referred. In the case below on the right, ego has a brother (Br), sister (Si), father (Fa), and mother (Mo).

What is the pedigree symbol for a deceased male?

Males are represented by squares and females by circles. Individuals who are deceased have a slash through the symbol representing them.

What symbols represent males and females in a pedigree?

The two standard sex symbols are the Mars symbol ♂ (often considered to represent a shield and spear) for male and Venus symbol ♀ (often considered to represent a bronze mirror with a handle) for female, derived from astrological symbols, denoting the classical planets Mars and Venus, respectively, and the elements